Although it was identified as a disorder as early as the 14th century, pica, or the eating of nonfood items, was believed for years to be almost nonexistent in several corners of the globe. A 2006 study that reviewed research on pica found just four areas — southern South America, Japan, Korea, and Madagascar — where the behavior was not observed.A new Harvard study, however, shows that pica — and particularly geophagy, or the eating of soil or clay — is far more prevalent in Madagascar, and may be more prevalent worldwide, than researchers had thought.As described in an Oct. 17 paper published in PLoS ONE, Christopher Golden ’05, a postdoctoral fellow at the Harvard University Center for the Environment, and colleagues from Madagascar Health and Environmental Research, the Université d’Antananarivo, and Cornell University surveyed 760 people living in 16 villages in the northeastern corner of the island nation, and found that more than half had engaged in geophagy.“We found the practice, though somewhat concealed, is incredibly widespread in Madagascar,” Golden said. “Perhaps even more interesting, our findings suggest that the population that is engaging in this behavior doesn’t fit with the traditional characterization of pica.”In earlier studies, researchers found that nearly all cases of pica occurred in adolescents or pregnant women — periods of increased nutritional demands. As expected, Golden and colleagues found high rates of both pica and geophagy among women in Madagascar, but they were surprised to uncover equally high rates among men, and even observed cases of children as young as 5 engaging in the behavior.Among the men surveyed by the researchers, 63 percent admitted to geophagy, while 44 percent of children and a quarter of adolescent males also engaged in the practice. Although the practice is most often associated with pregnancy, the researchers found that just over a quarter of women who were not pregnant engaged in the behavior.“We found no significant difference between men and women,” Golden said. “That suggests that sex is unimportant to the behavior, and that’s never been shown before. To be fair, it may simply be that the behavior hasn’t been studied in men because earlier studies had focused on pregnant women. But it also suggests that we should be asking questions about both sexes and across all ages to fully understand the motivations for this behavior.”One explanation for the seemingly high rate of the behavior, Golden said, is that soil is a key component of a natural medicine called aody andro, used by many Malagasy people as a “good luck” medicine to avoid becoming sick.A child holds a piece of “vato malemy,” a river sediment that is consumed and is believed to have curative properties for gastrointestinal illness.“It doesn’t fit into the strict definition of pica, because it’s not a craving. They’re using it to self-medicate,” Golden said. “But that could account for part of the reason the practice seems to be so widespread.”While the study doesn’t speculate as to why people in Madagascar engage in pica or geophagy — the two most popular theories suggest that people are absorbing nutrients like iron, zinc, and magnesium from the soil, or that the soil acts as a natural de-worming treatment — Golden said he hopes to answer those questions through additional research.“These questions fall under the larger umbrella of what I’m interested in exploring, which is environmental resource use and human health,” he said. “It would be interesting to see if the soils are imparting any nutritional benefits.“But additionally, this research is interesting because it begs for further analysis of other areas of the world,” he added. “It could be that Madagascar is a very unique case because men engage in this behavior as widely as women. But it could also be that the earlier methods we used to research this slanted the results in a particular way because of the way researchers approached the subject.”
INDIANAPOLIS, Ind. — The Indiana Bureau of Motor Vehicles announced that all branches will be closed on Friday in observance of the Good Friday Holiday.Branches will resume regularly scheduled hours on Saturday.Good Friday is a state holiday, but not a federal holiday which means mail will still be delivered.Many banks will remain open as well.
The USC women’s swimming and diving team will face top Pac-10 rivals California and Stanford at the McDonald’s Swim Stadium Friday and Saturday, with the Women of Troy eager to set the pace against some of the toughest competition they have faced this season.Quick starts · The USC women’s swimming team will host two dual meets in less than 24 hours. After losing a large contingent of seniors, the Women of Troy will rely heavily on their young swimmers for points. – Eric Burse | Daily Trojan “The fun thing about this weekend is that this is perhaps the most evenly matched competition between the three different schools in the last four to five years,” USC assistant coach Jeremy Kipp said.Cal, the reigning NCAA champions, is out for revenge after last year’s dual meet in Berkley, when the Women of Troy ran up a victorious score on a stunned Bears squad.“We are going to do what we can to take a few wins and make it close,” USC coach Dave Salo said. “With the graduation of Rebecca Soni, Katy Houston, Kristen Lahey and Rachael Waller, we are going to rely on a very young team to follow up with last year’s upset win over Cal.”The battle against Stanford will be another story, however, as the Trojans are looking to close the gap on the No. 4 team. Last year’s meet came down to the last few races, so this time the team will have to get off the walls fast and finish hard if they hope to capture victory.“Stanford is undefeated this season and looks to be among the favorites to win the NCAA championships this year,” Salo said. “We are excited and ready to compete with both teams.”The competition will also mark the last dual meet for senior captains Dina Hegazy and Krissy Forelli. Both women were All-Americans at last year’s NCAAs and will be looking to make the championship team once again this season.The Trojans to watch on both days will be sophomore Katinka Hosszu, junior Lyndsay DePaul and freshman Haley Anderson. Hozzsu and DePaul are among the best all-around swimmers in the NCAA and will be important in the distance, medley and sprint events. Anderson has proven herself to be USC’s leading distance lady, and the team will be looking to her to start off the meet with a win.Sophomore diver Victoria Ishimatsu will be another key competitor for the Trojans on both days, particularly against Stanford, which has one of the top diving teams in the country.“One area to watch and will be critical are the divers,” Kipp said. “We could possibly go a 1-2-3 sweep in both boards, which would be a huge advantage.”Although USC will rely heavily on the high-scoring teammates, what will ultimately dictate the outcome will be the smaller, yet valuable, efforts of the swimmers fighting for third, fourth and fifth, where points can add up and ultimately decide competitions.“The meet will be won on freshmen like Jessie Schmitt and Christel Simms who will need to step up big time,” Kipp said.
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