Local residents of Bentol, Careysburg District, have begun engaging in self-help initiatives in the absence of budgetary support from government to meet their development needs.Under the leadership of Bentol City Mayor Christine Tolbert Norman, the local residents are engaged in manpower development that seeks to empower youths and women to produce and provide goods and services.In addition, the youth who are between 25 and 35 are trained at the William R. Tolbert Empowerment and Enlightenment Center to develop self realization.According to City Mayor Norman, the young people are taught values, including integrity, honesty, and truth and other social norms that can transform them in society.The locals are also trained in food processing, computer literacy, agriculture, sewing, amongst others, which she said will enable the local people to have some gainful employment.Mayor Norman in an interview with the Daily Observer yesterday said that they are engaged in health and sanitation awareness, enlightening locals how to care for their environment by keeping it clean and spreading health messages in schools, churches and in communities.“When the youths are made to know and trust themselves, they will have that psychosocial enlightenment of what they subscribe to. We are therefore trying to work with them to know and trust themselves and develop some core values,” she said.According to Mayor Norman market women are also people on her agenda to build them a market structure so they can have a specific place to sell their goods, instead of going to the Red Light market where they sit in the sun all day long.“We are working to build their market and find customers who will go to Bentol to purchase processed food, including potato greens, grinded cassava leave and other food stuff,” the Bentol Mayor noted.Mayor Norman, who is a daughter of the late President William R. Tolbert, Jr., told this newspaper that the City has planned a festival on February 21 to celebrate partners who have immensely contributed to their self-help initiatives and to recognize efforts of the locals in cleaning up their communities.At the occasion, she said she would sign and subsequently launch a book titled, “It is Time for Change.” The book according to her highlights the legacy of the late President William R. Tolbert in nation and institution building.She said it contains speeches of the late President on principles and policies he pursued during his regime.She said they include the late president’s position on the establishments of the Mano River Union (MRU), West African Rice Development Association (WARDA), the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and inspirational speeches made at the Baptist Alliance.Also, the late president’s domestic policy of ‘Total Involvement in Higher Heights’ and the educational policy that allowed many to acquire education are highlighted.She said proceeds from the sale of the book will be used to support the William R. Tolbert Education Foundation. According to her, the family is currently constructing the foundation and will contain a museum, library and training areas for young people.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)
A round-up of the latest transfer speculation involving QPR… The north-east media continue to insist that Newcastle are attempting to sign QPR striker Charlie Austin.A £12m bid from Leicester, which was rejected, is so far the only offer or approach Rangers have received for the 25-year-old despite numerous reports of interest from various clubs.The Newcastle Chronicle say Magpies boss Steve McClaren will make contact with QPR over Austin in the coming days.Newcastle have been linked with Austin but have not made an approachMeanwhile, the Mail on Sunday reports that Sandro could join Santos on a season-long loan from the R’s.The midfielder was being lined up for a return to his native Brazil even before problems with his visa led to him missing the final matches of last season.Santos are one of the clubs that has been offered the chance to sign Sandro. The Mail reports that talks have taken place and say a deal is set to be agreed.Follow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebook
The Humboldt State women’s basketball team downed conference CCAA rival Chico State on the road 69-60 Saturday night. The win moves Humboldt (10-8, 9-4) past Chico (10-7, 8-5) into third place in the conference with nine games remaining in the season. The Jacks, one of the smaller teams in the CCAA, dominated the glass in the win. Humboldt out-rebounded Chico 31-19 and scored 34 points in the paint to Chico’s 28. “We were able to get extra possessions by being aggressive on the offensive …
Cosmologists can get rid of the burden of their worst imponderable substance, dark energy, if they are willing to jettison the Copernican Principle. Science Daily reported thinking by a team of Oxford physicists who make the apparent acceleration of the universe an artifact of our viewing position. When distant galaxies are viewed without the assumption that earth occupies no privileged position, dark energy becomes unnecessary. How radical is this suggestion? It replaces one outrageous belief with one even more so: “Although dark energy may seem a bit contrived to some, the Oxford theorists are proposing an even more outrageous alternative,” the article said. “They point out that it’s possible that we simply live in a very special place in the universe – specifically, we’re in a huge void where the density of matter is particularly low. The suggestion flies in the face of the Copernican Principle, which is one of the most useful and widely held tenets in physics.” This suggestion may “shock many scientists.” The Oxford team hopes to test the idea. See also the 03/15/2008 story about another team that called the Copernican Principle into question.It’s always error-prone to try to rescue a theory with ad hoc appeals to imponderable substances. The Oxford team may be off the wall, but their off-the-wallness is only a matter of degree from the consensus theory of dark energy. This article also points out that astronomers don’t know as much as they claim they do. The uniform distribution of matter and the Copernican Principle are shown to be assumptions – not observations.(Visited 14 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
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“Is the above the right layer structure or do we need to revise?” Bludesheim asks at GBA’s Q&A forum. “One thing we do not want to change is the concrete slab and radiant heat in it. So I’m basically interested in what should go below the slab at this point. We really don’t want to have to worry about ever touching that slab again!”Is the architect’s recommendation to include a layer of sand a good idea? And what other issues should Budesheim consider before the new slab goes in? Those are the topics for this Q&A Spotlight. Our expert’s opinionPeter Yost, GBA’s technical director, adds this:Unfortunately, there are a number of problems with the slab detail.Blotter sand: As others have clearly stated: lose this. This layer of sand originally was added as a moisture sink so the top and bottom of the concrete dried more evenly, reducing edge curl (see the Building Science Corporation article, “Concrete Floor Problems”). But it also was thought necessary because a wetter mix was easier to move around. A water-to-cement ratio of 0.5 or less is generally recommended, but this stiffer mix does not make the folks handling it as happy!Thickness of sub-slab insulation: In this climate, sub-slab insulation is more about thermal comfort than energy savings. However, for a heated slab, it’s a whole different story. The 2105 International Energy Conservation Code calls for adding R-5 beneath a heated slab in Climate Zone 3, but it’s silly to be redoing this slab and not incorporating at least R-10 worth of insulation.Slab edge insulation: This actually is more important than the under-slab insulation. Every GBA slab detail shows some sort of slab edge detail. Does this introduce any stability issues in terms of tying the grade beam to the slab, especially in San Francisco? Since this is a structural engineering question, I turned to Bruce King of the Ecological Building Network.King responded, “Here in the land of the dancing earth, we engineers tend to tie everything together, like slab edges to perimeter footings. But there’s nothing sacred about that. Especially for such small spaces, I doubt that it is all that important, and would weigh the large thermal needs (insulate the slab edge) over the modest seismic benefit of tying slab to footing. But again, there’s lots of context I don’t know [for this particular project] that might make me change my mind.”Finally, both as a builder (not long ago…) and consultant, I have found the “Type” system for the different grades of polystyrene insulation — expanded polystyrene (EPS) and extruded polystyrene (XPS) — confusing. It’s important that you know the Type of either EPS or XPS that you are specifying or buying. I have found this resource helpful. RELATED ARTICLES Where should the tubing be located?Budesheim is committed to a radiant-floor heating system, and the question now turns to exactly where in his proposed 5-inch-thick slab the tubing should be placed. He’s considering a product called Creatherm, EPS floor panels which include molded channels for PEX radiant floor tubing.Although the Creatherm panels look as if they’d work, Dorsett says, they place the tubing at the bottom of the slab rather than in the middle of the slab, and that’s going to make the heating system a little less responsive.“In practice that probably doesn’t matter much,” he says. “I have no idea how it’s priced, but it saves labor on the heating installation end. Sheets of smooth 2-inch-thick Type-II EPS under slabs typically runs 75-85 U.S. cents per square foot, installed; Type X (2-pound density) is more like 90 cents a square foot. Type-X is preferred by some radiant heating contractors for its better staple retention, which allows them to simply staple the tubing to the foam (again, at the bottom of the slab) rather than tie it to the metal reinforcing layer, which is more labor-intensive.”Tubing does not belong in the bottom of the slab, McGrath says.“Expansion joints are often the topic when this discussion takes place,” he says. “First, there are two types of slabs, those that are cracked and those that have not cracked yet. Nature of the beast. If it were not so, we would not need expansion joints. Expansion joints are just a place for the slab to crack at instead of wherever it wants due to conditions. These joints should have their location identified and tubing should dip below for 6 inches on either side or if they are to be saw-cut the slice needs not be more than a 1/2 inch to 3/4 inch deep.”David Meiland would probably not be voting in favor of panel products such as Creatherm, in part because there already is an easy solution to the problem of locating tubing in the slab.“Rip a 45-degree bevel on rigid insulation and install it against the perimeter walls with the bevel at the top,” Meiland says. “Install crushed rock without fines as your slab base, compacted very flat. Place rigid insulation over the rock and then your [vapor barrier] over the insulation. Install a mat of #3 rebar on 1 1/2-inch dobies. Tie the tubing to the top of the rebar. Pour a 4 1/2-inch slab. When you make your 1-inch-deep control cuts, you will not hit the tubing.” Get the sand out of the pictureAsk your architect to read the same articles you have, Holladay suggests, and notes, “The sand layer shouldn’t be there.”Although the sand layer is unnecessary, at least the architect has called for a 6-mil vapor barrier above the sand; the 6-mil poly prevents the moisture in the slab from migrating upwards, avoiding most of the problems associated with the sand layer.Kevin Zorski adds this: “The other problem with the sand is: what’s to prevent the sand from, over time, filling all the voids in the crushed rock layer, and creating possible cracks in your slab? I agree with Martin. Lose the sand!”Richard McGrath adds to the chorus. “Should it eventually get wet,” he writes, “it will actually hurt the performance. Water within six feet of a slab in contact with earth must be accounted for in the calculations.”OK, says Budesheim — no sand. How much insulation should be used?But what about some of the other details, including the amount of insulation the architect is recommending?Holladay says that 1 inch of rigid foam isn’t enough under a heated slab, even in Climate Zone 3, where Budesheim’s house is located. Two inches is the minimum, he says, and more would be better.Dana Dorsett would rather see 3 inches of rigid foam under the slab, and there’s something else about the architect’s proposal that bugs him.“There are several issues with the detail I don’t like, not the least of which is the lack of thermal break between the slab and the grade beam foundation,” Dorsett says. “Not only does there need to be more than an inch of foam (2 inches [of] EPS would be the minimum for a heated slab, 3 inches better). Even with an unheated slab you’d want 1 inch at the slab edge for comfort, and maybe 1 inch sub-slab on the perimeter, but for a heated slab you’d want 2 inches (R-8.4) under the slab, and at least 1.5 inch (R-6.3) between the slab and the grade beam.“That ‘floats’ the slab mechanically as well as thermally,” Dorsett continues, “which probably makes it safer from a seismic/structural point of view, but consulting local codes on that would be prudent. If the beam and slab must be in contact for some reason, 1.5 inch of EPS on the exterior would be called for.”Well, Budesheim replies, that’s going to be a problem. The architect is calling for a strong connection between the existing stem walls and the new slab. He’s not including a thermal break of any kind between slab and the foundation wall.“I did read somewhere that in my climate, decoupling the slab from the side foundation walls, while helpful, is not as critical as in colder climates,” Budesheim says. “Is that correct?”Sort of, Dorsett says. Decoupling the slab from an uninsulated foundation isn’t critical in temperature Climate Zone 3C and is not required by the International Residential Code.“But when the slab becomes a heating radiator, it sure matters!” he adds. “If it were a cast-iron radiator, it’s the thermal equivalent of exposing the ends of the radiators to the outdoors.”An inch of extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation doesn’t provide much of a thermal break, Dorsett says. At R-5, it’s “better than nothing, I suppose, but not exactly great.” If Budesheim were to add an inch of XPS on the outside of the foundation wall, plus 1 inch between the new slab and the foundation, however, he’d be in the R-10 to R-11 range, “which is much more reasonable.”If the architect insists on eliminating the insulation between the slab and the foundation, as Budesheim suggests he will, Holladay tells him that exterior insulation will be a must.“You need to install insulation on the exterior side of your concrete stem wall, down to the bottom of the footing, and you need to protect the above-grade portion of the insulation with metal flashing or stucco,” he says. As part of a remodel of his San Francisco area home, Torsten Budesheim is converting the 700-square-foot lower level into living space. An existing slab has been removed, and Budesheim has removed a few inches of material to increase the finished ceiling height. Now, he’s nearly read to place a new 5-inch-thick slab that will include tubing for radiant heat.Budesheim’s architect has supplied a drawing for the concrete slab and its base layers, and the details are making Budesheim nervous. In particular, he wonders about the call for a 2-inch-thick layer of sand immediately below a 6-mil waterproofing membrane and an inch of rigid insulation.What has the gears turning are two articles Budesheim has come across, one by GBA senior editor Martin Holladay and another by the Building Science Corporation (BSC). In each, Budesheim finds a warning that a layer of what’s known as “blotter sand” beneath the concrete will lead to problems. Polyethylene Under Concrete Slabs From Building Science Corporation: Concrete Floor Problems Slab on Grade Edge InsulationSlab FoundationsQ&A: Vapor Barrier Under the Basement SlabFoam Under FootingsStay Away from Foil-Faced Bubble Wrap Insulating a Slab on GradeQ&A: Below-grade polyethylene and slabQ&A: How to properly insulate a poured slab with PEX?